Toyota Land Cruiser 100/Amazon, Lexus LX 470

since 1997 release

Repair and operation of the car

Toyota Land Cruiser, Amazon, Lexus LX470
+ Identification numbers of the car
+ Governing bodies and methods of safe operation of the car
+ Settings and routine maintenance of the car
+ Engine
+ Cooling systems of the engine, heating of salon and air conditioning
+ A power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
+ Engine electric equipment
- Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
   System of onboard diagnostics (OBD) - the principle of functioning and codes of malfunctions
   Application of an oscillograph for observation of working signals of a control system
   Check of a state and replacement of ESM
   Information sensors - the general information and check of serviceability of functioning
   Replacement of information sensors
   System of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) - the general information, check of a state and replacement of components
   System of the operated ventilation of a case (PCV)
   The catalytic converter - the general information, check of a state and replacement
+ Gear shifting box
+ Transmission line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment


System of onboard diagnostics (OBD) – the principle of functioning and codes of malfunctions

All considered models are completed with the OBD II systems (the second generation), data read-out from which memory requires the special scanner. In view of told above, reading of codes of malfunctions from memory of the OBD II system should be charged to the specialists of company car repair shop having everything the necessary diagnostic equipment. On all equipped OBD II models five-digit diagnostic codes, a part from which is given in the text of the present Section, are used, more detailed information can be obtained in representative offices of the Toyota company.

Data on diagnostic units

Check of serviceability of functioning of components of systems of injection and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases is made by means of the universal digital measuring instrument (multimeter) (address an accompanying illustration).

Use of the digital measuring instrument is preferable for several reasons. First, on analog devices it is rather difficult (sometimes, it is impossible), to define result of the indication to within the 100-th and thousand shares while at inspection of the contours including electronic components in the structure, such accuracy is of particular importance. The second, not less important, the fact that the internal contour of a digital multimeter, has rather high impedance is the reason (internal resistance of the device makes 10 million Ohms). As the voltmeter is connected to the checked chain in parallel, the accuracy of measurement of subjects is higher, than smaller parasitic current will pass through actually device. This factor is not essential at measurement of rather high values of tension (9 – 12 V), however becomes defining at diagnostics of the elements giving low-voltage signals, such as, for example, lambda probe where it is about measurement of shares of volt.

The most convenient devices for diagnostics of control systems of the engine of modern models of cars are manual readers of skanerny type (address an accompanying illustration). Before application the reader should be checked for compliance of model and year of release of the checked car. Some scanners are multipurpose, at the expense of a possibility of change of a cartridge depending on model of the diagnosed car (Ford, GM, Chrysler, etc.), others are tied to requirements of the regional authorities and intended for use in certain regions of the world (Europe, Asia, the USA, etc.).

With introduction to production to meeting requirements of the last legislations for environmental protection of system of onboard diagnostics of the second generation (OBD-II) readers of a special design began to be issued. Some producers marketed the scanners intended for use by amateur mechanics in house conditions, – ask in shops of automobile accessories.

In spite of the fact that reading of codes of malfunctions in the OBD II systems is not possible without use of the special scanner, below, the description of some elementary checks of separate components of system is provided in the Section Information sensors - the general information and check of serviceability of functioning.

General information

The scheme of an arrangement of components of control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases on models with the V8 engine

1 — the VSV sensor of pressure of vapors
2 — the Sensor of pressure of vapors
3 — the Sensor switch of permission of start (AT)
4 — ECU of the fuel pump
5 — VSS
6 — DLC No. 3
7 — the Sensor switch of stoplights
8 — Warmed up a lambda probe (a row 1 the sensor 2 and the block 2 the sensor 2)
9 — the Main EFI relay
10 — Warmed up a lambda probe (a row 1 the sensor 1)
11 — the detonation No. 1 Sensor
12 — Warmed up a lambda probe (a row 2 the sensor 1)

13 — the detonation No. 2 Sensor
14 — the CKP Sensor
15 — the CMP Sensor
16 — the Sensor of temperature of cooling liquid
17 — the Drive of a butterfly valve with electromagnetic coupling
18 — the Sensor of provision of a pedal of an accelerator
19 — the MAF Sensor
20 — DLC No. 1
21 — TPS
22 — the ignition Coil
23 — ECM
24 — VSV of the EVAP system

Electronic systems of injection and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases in the course of the functioning at operation of the car are crossed with various other systems which are responsible for efficiency of return of the engine. All listed systems turn on a set of information sensors and the electronic module of management (ESM) in the structure (address an illustration above).

Systems of this sort can be compared on the structure to the central nervous system of a human body where a role of a brain is played by the module of management (ESM), and information sensors act as the nervous terminations. Sensors send signals to ESM which analyzes the arriving information and develops response commands for adjustment of the corresponding working parameters.

Let's review the specific example allowing to imagine more clearly the principle of functioning of system: built in in system of release a lambda probe continuously traces the level of contents O 2 in a stream of the fulfilled engine gases. If percentage of oxygen considerably deviates some control value entered into memory of system, ESM immediately obtains the relevant information and on the basis of its analysis develops the command for the corresponding adjustment of duration of opening of injectors of fuel, carrying out thereby adjustment of composition of air-fuel mix. Duration of the described procedural cycle makes fractions of a second that provides due efficiency of functioning of system. As a result, efficiency of return of the engine is constantly maintained at the greatest possible level.

Reading of codes of malfunctions of OBD-II

Reading of codes of malfunctions of OBD-II is possible only with use of the special equipment. Not the complete list of the codes revealed by system is provided in the text of this Section, – in case of need address for consultation in representative offices of the company manufacturer of the car.

In the OBD-II system five-digit codes of the revealed malfunctions are brought in the processor memory (ESM).

Reading of the codes which are written down in the processor memory is made by means of the special OBD-II scanner which is connected to the 16-contact diagnostic DLC 3 socket (address an accompanying illustration). The scanner is the laptop equipped with the interface for connection to system to onboard self-diagnostics and is extremely effective tool, allowing not only to make reading of codes, but also to obtain information on the current parameters of functioning of information sensors and actuation mechanisms. The scanner has rather high cost in view of what implementation of the procedure of diagnostics will be reasonable to charge to specialists of car service.

It is necessary to notice that the system of onboard self-diagnostics is capable to find not all possible refusals, – in case of need do not hesitate to address for consultations on company car repair shops of the Toyota company. During search of the reasons of decrease in efficiency of return of the engine, increase in fuel consumption or level of toxicity of the fulfilled gases (these violations usually are not followed by operation of a control lamp "Check the engine") it is necessary to make first of all all complex of standard checks regarding identification of the reasons listed in the Section devoted to diagnostics of malfunctions of systems and knots of the car in introduction to the present manual and only after it to switch to the OBD system.

It is necessary to remember that use of OBD-II demands from the operator of basic knowledge in the field of automobile electronics, non-compliance with precautionary measures at the address ESM and other electronic components can lead to an irreversible exit of system out of operation.

The list of the diagnostic OBD-II codes of the most typical system failures is presented in the table given below. If it is not possible to reveal and remove a cause of failure independently, the car should be driven away on car repair shop for the purpose of performing diagnostics with use of the special diagnostic equipment.

Cleaning of memory of OBD-II

For cleaning of memory of ESM connect the scanner to system and in an apportion of its menu choose the CLEARING CODES function ("Removal of codes"). Further follow the instructions highlighted on the device or at once for 30 seconds take from the nest in the assembly block EFI safety lock. Alternatively cleaning of memory of system can be made by removal of a fusible insert (the main safety lock of the system of onboard power supply) installed close the positive plug of the battery (see. Onboard electric equipment) (it is possible also just to disconnect a positive wire from the battery).

If the stereosystem established on the car is equipped with a security code before disconnecting the battery make sure that you have the correct combination for input of the audio system in action!

Shutdown of the battery also leads to removal of settings of the receiver for favourite radio stations.

In order to avoid damage of ESM its shutdown and connection should be made only at the switched-off ignition!