Toyota Land Cruiser, Amazon, Lexus LX470
+ Identification numbers of the car
+ Governing bodies and methods of safe operation of the car
+ Settings and routine maintenance of the car
+ Cooling systems of the engine, heating of salon and air conditioning
+ A power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
- Gear shifting box
- Automatic Transmission (AT)
Failure diagnostics of AT - the general information
Adjustment of draft of gear shifting
Check, adjustment and replacement of the sensor switch of permission of start
Removal and installation of assembly of the lever of the AT selector
Removal and installation of automatic transmission
+ Transfer case
+ Transmission line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Failure diagnostics of AT – the general information
Refusals of AT most often happen for one of the following five reasons:
- Decrease in efficiency of return of the engine;
- Violation of adjustments;
- Malfunction of hydraulics;
- Mechanical damages;
- Failures of the onboard processor / its alarm chain.
Failure diagnostics always has to begin with the simplest checks: estimate the level and a condition of ATF (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the car), check adjustment of drives of gear shifting and a butterfly valve. Further, carry out trial runs of the car for the purpose of definition of efficiency of the made corrections. If it was not succeeded to fix a problem, it is necessary to drive away the car on car repair shop for more detailed diagnostics with use of the special equipment. The description of some of symptoms of violations of functioning of AT is provided in the Section devoted to failure diagnostics of knots and systems of the car at the beginning of the present manual.
| 1. During a short trip warm up transmission up to the normal working temperature.
2. Check the ATF level (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the car):
a. If liquid is obviously not enough, make the corresponding adjustment, having added necessary quantity ATF is fresher. Be convinced of correctness of the carried-out adjustment according to indications of the measuring probe, then check transmission for existence of signs of external leaks (see below);
b. If level is excessively high, merge surplus of ATF, then check it for existence of the traces of presence of cooling liquid demonstrating violation of tightness of the internal partitions of a radiator separating its heat exchanger from side tanks with ATF (see the Head of the Cooling system of the engine, heating of salon and air conditioning);
c. If ATF is made foam, empty transmission and fill it with fresh liquid, – check the merged ATF for existence of traces of presence of cooling liquid.
3. Check installation of turns of idling of the engine (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the car). In case of need drive away the car on car repair shop for performance of the corresponding adjustments.
4. Make sure of correctness of adjustment and smoothness of the course of draft of the drive of gear shifting (see the Section Adjustment of Draft of Gear Shifting).
If the engine not as it should be, it is not necessary to start performance of primary checks of transmission until the corresponding corrections are made.
Diagnostics of leakages of ATF
The majority of leaks easily come to light at visual check. Repair usually consists in replacement of the corresponding defective epiploon or laying. If it is not possible to reveal a leak source during external survey, act as it is described below.
|1. First of all it is necessary to exclude probability of a mistake in definition of the nature of leak. It is not necessary to confuse ATF to motive oil or brake fluid (transmission liquid usually has dark red color).
2. For identification of a source of leak make short (several kilometers) a trip, then park the car over the outspread blank sheet of a cardboard. Later a couple of minutes the source of leak can be revealed in the wake of the liquid dripping on a cardboard.
3. Attentively examine the suspected site and the surface surrounding it, paying special attention to joints of the interfaced surfaces. For the purpose of expansion of a viewing angle use a pocket mirror.
4. If it is not possible to reveal a leak source still, carefully wipe the surface of the suspected site with the rags moistened with solvent, then dry it.
5. Make one more short trip, this time often changing the speed of the movement, then again examine the cleaned suspected site.
6. After identification of a source of leak, it is necessary to define and remove the cause of its development, and only then to pass to performance of necessary recovery work. Replacement of the damaged laying will not result in desirable result if not to eliminate the defect of the interfaced surface which led to a sealant exit out of operation. So, the deformed flange needs to be aligned.
In the following subsections the most typical reasons of development of leakages of ATF and a condition which have to be executed that there was no recurrence are listed.
Part cannot be executed from the listed requirements without use of the special equipment. In this case the car should be driven away on car repair shop.
Leaks through pro-masonry surfaces
Periodically examine the transmission case pallet. Check existence on the places and reliability of tightening of fixing bolts, you watch that on a cover traces of mechanical damages did not appear (deformation of the pallet can lead to failure of the valvate assembly located in transmission).
Via the pallet excessively hard tightening of fixing bolts, violation of passability of the ventilating line, mechanical damage of a sealing surface of a case of transmission, laying destruction, and also emergence of cracks or porosity of walls of a case are among the possible reasons of development of leaks. If laying of the pallet or a case of transmission is formed by a sealant pillow, the probability of the wrong choice of type of the last is not excluded. Through laying of the pallet can lead to leaks also overflow of a case transmission liquid, or increase in pressure of ATF.
Leaks through epiploons and cuffs
The most typical reasons of an exit of epiploons of transmission excessively high ATF level/pressure, violation of passability of a ventilating branch pipe, mechanical damage of walls of a landing nest, damage actually out of operation are among an epiploon, or the wrong installation of the last. Also the probability of damage of a pin of the shaft passed throughout an epiploon, or an excessive side play of the last as a result of wear of bearings is not excluded.
Check a state and correctness of landing of a sealing cuff of the directing tube of the measuring probe. Periodically examine on existence of signs of leaks a surface around an arrangement of a driving gear wheel of the speedometer/sensor of the speed (VSS). In case of need you make replacement of a sealing ring.
Leaks through defects in transmission case walls
Formation of cracks or time in a transmission case body can be the reason of development of leakages of ATF, consult at specialists of car service.
Check tightness of nipple knots of connection of hoses of a cooler of ATF.
Leaks through сапун and a jellied mouth
Leaks through сапун ventilation or a jellied mouth can happen owing to overflow of transmission, hit in ATF of cooling liquid, passability violation сапуна / a ventilating branch pipe or returnable drainage openings.
Diagnostics of other refusals of AT
Check of serviceability of functioning of electronic subsystems of AT
The system of self-diagnostics which by means of a control lamp of shutdown of the raising transfer (O/D OFF) warns the driver about the malfunctions arising in transmission is a part of an electronic part of a control system of functioning of AT. It is possible to define a code of the malfunction brought in memory of the device by the same control lamp.
The prevention and reading of codes of malfunctions become possible only at the included OD mode (the switch – in position of ON), otherwise the control lamp will constantly burn in the normal mode.
At emergence of malfunction of sensors of speed (VSS No. 1 or No. 2) or one of electromagnetic valves (No. No. 1, 2 or 4) the control lamp will begin to blink, warning the driver about the arisen malfunction. In case of failure electromagnetic the valve No. 3 (the valve of control of the blocking coupling of the hydrotransformer) of the warning of malfunction will not be.
|The code of the malfunction which arose in transmission can be defined by the same control lamp: for this purpose it is necessary to peremknut conclusions of "TE1" and "E1" of the diagnostic socket (address an accompanying illustration).
Check of serviceability of functioning of mechanical subsystems of AT
Check on completely slowed down car (stall test)
Operability of transmission and the engine is made by measurement of frequency of rotation of a bent shaft in provisions "R" and "D" of AT at completely slowed down car.
ATF has to be heated-up up to the normal working temperature (50 – 80 hail.). Duration of each check should not exceed 5 seconds.
Check should be made by forces of two people: one has to watch car wheels, the second makes necessary manipulations in interior of the car.
|1. Slow down forward and back wheels of the car.
2. Connect a tachometer to the engine.
3. Completely cock the parking brake.
4. Squeeze out against the stop a pedal of a foot brake.
5. Transfer a control lever the transfer case to situation "H".
6. Start the engine. Transfer the AT selector lever to situation "D", squeeze out against the stop the accelerator pedal and quickly consider indications of a tachometer.
7. Make similar check with transfer of transmission to situation "R".
If during check performance back wheels of the car begin to rotate before the frequency of rotation of the engine reaches the required value, release the accelerator pedal and stop check.
If the frequency of rotation of the engine in both cases is identical below demanded, therefore, the engine does not develop full capacity, or the coupling of a free wheeling of the AT hydrotransformer is faulty.
If the frequency of rotation of the engine is higher than the transmission of "D" demanded in situation, it can demonstrate excessive pressure decrease in the main highway, pro-slipping in the coupling of a free wheeling No. 2, violation of serviceability of functioning of the coupling of a free wheeling of the raising planetary row, or pro-slipping in the coupling of direct transfer of the transfer case.
Excess of frequency of rotation of the engine in the provision "R" of transmission demonstrates pressure drop in the main highway, pro-slipping in the coupling of direct transfer, pro-slipping in a brake of the first and back transfers, violation of serviceability of functioning of the coupling of a free wheeling of the raising planetary row, or pro-slipping in the coupling of direct transfer of the transfer case.
If turns of the engine are overestimated in both provisions of transmission, so or excessively pressure fell in the main highway, or the ATF level does not correspond to the required value, or serviceability of functioning of the coupling of a free wheeling of the raising planetary row is broken, or pro-slipping in the coupling of direct transfer of the transfer case takes place.
Check of time of delay of switching
If at the engine working at single turns to transfer the selector lever to one of advance ranges, until a start of motion there has to pass some time. On duration of this delay it is possible to judge serviceability of functioning of blocking couplings of the raising planetary number, the forward course, direct transfer and a brake of the first and back transfers.
Check should be made on the engine which is warmed up up to the normal working temperature. The end result should be received by method of averaging of results of three checks, between each of which there have to pass not less than one minute. It is given detailed descriptions of the course of performance of this check below.
|1. Completely cock the parking brake. Transfer a control lever of the transfer case to situation "H".
2. Start the engine and check turns of its idling (cm the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the car), – in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.
3. Transfer the selector lever from situation "N" to situation "D" and by means of a stop watch measure delay time, – average value of three consecutive dimensions should not exceed 1.2 seconds.
4. Working in a similar manner, define time of a delay of turning on of the reverse gear which should not exceed 1.5 seconds.
Too low pressure in the main highway, violation of serviceability of functioning of the coupling of the forward course, the coupling of a free wheeling of the raising number of planetary assembly, or a brake of the first and back transfers can be the reason of excessive size of a delay of inclusion.
Check is made by forces of two people.
Check is made at warmed up up to the normal working temperature (50 – 80 hail.) ATF.
|1. Turn out a cap from a case of transmission and screw a nozzle of the special manometer on its place.
2. Cock the parking brake.
3. Start the engine and check correctness of installation of turns of idling (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the car), – in case of need make the corresponding adjustment.
4. Squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake and transfer the selector lever to situation "D".
5. Consider the indication of the manometer at single turns of the engine.
6. Squeeze out against the stop the accelerator pedal and consider the new indication of the measuring instrument at the maximum turns of the engine.
7. Working in a similar manner make measurements in the backing mode.
If back wheels begin to rotate before turns reach the maximum value, immediately release gas and stop check.
8. Compare results of measurement to the card of pressure in the main highway (the card of pressure can be received at dealers of the Toyota company).
9. If pressure in both ranges is overestimated, it is necessary to make adjustment of a cable of an accelerator, to check a condition of a butterfly valve and/or the regulator of pressure.
Besides listed above also violation of serviceability of functioning of the oil pump, and failure of the blocking coupling of the raising planetary row, the coupling of direct transfer of a planetary number of the transfer case (N), the coupling of the forward course of the transfer case can be the reasons of the underestimated results (N, L), or brakes of inclusion of the lowering transfer of the transfer case (L).
If pressure is underestimated only in the D mode, therefore there is a leak of working liquid in a contour of management in the corresponding range, or the coupling of the forward course is faulty.
Leak of working liquid in the corresponding range, or violation of serviceability of functioning of a brake of the first and back transfers can be the reason of understating of pressure in the R mode.
Tests have to be made at ATF which is warmed up up to the normal working temperature (50 – 80 °C).
Check in the range "D" in normal and sports operating modes of AT
| 1. Transfer the AT selector lever to situation "D", squeeze out against the stop the accelerator pedal and hold it in this situation. Check the moments of gear shifting 1-2, 2-3 and 3-4, – compare results of check to standard values.
2. Check is made for the normal and sports modes of functioning of AT.
3. Lack of switching 1-2 testifies to an entrance out of operation of the electromagnetic valve No. 2, or sticking of the valve 1-2.
4. The electromagnetic valve No. 1 is responsible for lack of switching 2-3, also the probability of sticking of the valve of switching 2-3 is not excluded.
5. In the absence of switching 3-4 check a condition of the valve 3-4.
6. Violation of serviceability of functioning of a butterfly valve and valves of switching 1-2/2-3/3-4 can appear the reason of failure of the moments of gear shifting.
7. Lack of blocking of the hydrotransformer is explained by failure of the electromagnetic valve No. 3, or sticking the blocking inclusion valve.
8. Estimate smoothness of gear shifting. By the cause of pushes excessively high pressure in the main highway, violation of serviceability of functioning of the hydroaccumulator, or control ball valve can be put.
9. Moving with the blocked hydrotransformer, or on the 4th transfer, estimate intensity of vibrations and a noise background.
10. Accelerate the car before inclusion of the 4th transfer and, braking, define the moments of switching 4-3, 3-2 and 2-1. Compare results of check to standard values.
Also violation of balancing of driveshafts can be the cause of vibrations and noise.
11. Estimate smoothness of switching.
12. Check quality of blocking of the hydrotransformer, at uniform motion on the 4th transfer blocking has to happen at a speed about 75 km/h. Slightly press the accelerator pedal, – turns of the engine should not change considerably, otherwise blocking of the hydrotransformer is broken.
Check in the range "2"
| 1. Transfer the AT selector lever to situation "2", squeeze out against the stop the accelerator pedal and hold it in this situation.
2. Define the moment of switching 1-2, compare result of check to standard requirements.
3. Moving on the 2nd transfer, release the accelerator pedal and estimate efficiency of braking of the car the engine. If braking is absent, therefore, the brake of providing this mode is faulty.
In this mode of switching 2-3, 3-4 and blocking of the hydrotransformer are forbidden; at the movement with a speed of 100 km/h and above braking by the engine is forbidden.
Check in the range of "L"
At inclusion of the L mode any raising switchings are forbidden, – the car has to move on the first transfer all the time.
|1. Release the accelerator pedal and estimate intensity of braking by the engine. If braking is absent, therefore, the brake of inclusion of the first and back transfers is faulty.
2. Estimate noise level and vibrations in the course of braking of the car the engine.
Check in the range of "R"
| Transfer the AT selector lever to situation "R" and begin the movement in the accelerator pedal which is squeezed out against the stop, pro-slipping of frictional elements of management has to be absent.
Check in the range "Р"
Park the car on a bias not less than 5 ° and transfer the selector lever to situation "P", you do not cock the parking brake, –
омобиль has to remain motionless.